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Types of papers and requirements
• Submission checklist
Ethical and Legal Considerations in Publication
• Informed consent and patient details
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Preprint posting on SSRN
• Use of inclusive language
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
Submission
After Submission
• Peer review
• Highlights
• Video
• Supplementary material
• Research data
• Research Elements
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Proofs
• Offprints
AUTHOR INQUIRIES


The Journal of Clinical Neuroscience is the official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia, the Australian and New Zealand Association of Neurologists, the Australian and New Zealand Society for Neuropathology, the Taiwan Neurosurgical Society, and the Asian Australasian Society of Neurological Surgeons





Case reports will not be considered and should not be submitted as any article type.

Original Research
  • Clinical/observational/quality improvement/education/epidemiology studies
  • Word limit: 5000 words
  • Structured abstract: Background/Methods/Results/Conclusions; maximum 400 words
  • Paper should be structured as Introduction/Methods/Results/Conclusions
  • Human research studies must include information on research ethics and informed consent


  • Review Article
  • Only systematic reviews or meta-analyses that comply with PRISMA guidelines will be considered
  • Word limit: 5000 words
  • Structured abstract: Background/Methods/Results/Conclusions; maximum 400 words
  • Paper should be structured as Introduction/Methods/Results/Conclusions
  • PROSPERO registration should be stipulated


  • Tools and Techniques
  • Submissions should discuss tools, techniques and technology related to clinical neuroscience
  • Word limit: 3000 words
  • Unstructured abstract: maximum 200 words


  • Global Neuroscience
  • Submissions should discuss and contextualize epidemiology or processes of care related to clinical neuroscience in low and middle income countries, any low resource setting or of global significance
  • Word limit: 2000 words
  • Unstructured abstract: maximum 200 words


  • History of Clinical Neuroscience
  • Submissions should provide history about clinical neuroscience
  • Word limit: 2000 words
  • Unstructured abstract: maximum 200 words


  • Opinion Paper
  • Submissions should address an opinion about a controversial topic in clinical neuroscience
  • Word limit: 2000 words
  • Unstructured abstract: maximum 200 words


  • Mind Matter
  • Submissions should include personal stories, essays or poems related to the writer's practice of or experience with clinical neuroscience
  • Word limit: 2000 words
  • No abstract


  • Images in Neuroscience
  • Submissions should include 1-2 figures of educational value and a 200 word description
  • No abstract


  • Correspondence
  • Submissions should express views related to articles previously published in Journal of Clinical Neuroscience or views in response to other correspondence
  • Word limit: 1000 words
  • No abstract


  • Invited Commentary
  • Submissions in this category are by invitation only
  • Submissions should provide context and key takeaways
  • Word limit: 1000 words
  • No abstract


  • Submission checklist

    You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

    Ensure that the following items are present:

    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address

    All necessary files have been uploaded:
    Manuscript:
    • Include keywords
    • All figures (include relevant captions)
    • All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
    • Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
    • Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
    Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
    Supplemental files (where applicable)

    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
    • All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
    • A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
    • Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
    • Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

    For further information, visit our Support Center.

    Additional checklist for YJOCN
    Legal compliance
    • Signed patient consent form has been supplied for publication of recognisable images
    • Conflict of interest has been disclosed
    Manuscript
    • Word count is within the limit for the article type
    • The number of images is within the limit for the article type
    • Contains an abstract of one single paragraph of 200 -250 words
    • All acronyms have been spelt out at first mention
    Contact information
    • One nominated corresponding author only
    Figures
    • All figures are cited and in numerical order
    • On black-and-white figures, any previously colored sections can be clearly differentiated
    • Identifying patient details have been removed
    • Captions for scans include scan type and view
    • Captions for histology images include stain type and scale bar/original magnification
    • Abbreviations/acronyms are spelt out in the caption to each respective figure
    Tables
    • Submitted in Word or Excel format
    • All are cited and in numerical order
    References
    • Any URL addresses have been verified
    • URL addresses include date of latest access




    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in Publishing and Ethical Guidelines for journal publication see https://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and https://www.elsevier.com/ethicalguidelines.

    A paper that contains the results of human and/or animal studies will be accepted for publication only if it is made clear that a high standard of ethics was applied in carrying out the investigation. All clinical investigators must follow the Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki (http://ohsr.od.nih.gov/guidelines/helsinki.html). In the case of invasive studies of humans, the text should include a statement that the research protocol was approved by a local institutional review board or ethics committee and that written consent was obtained from all subjects. For case reports, subjects must not be identifiable; however, the patient's written consent to publish must be given (see Patient details).

    Informed consent and patient details

    Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

    Declaration of interest

    All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double anonymized) or the manuscript file (if single anonymized). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify compliance, your article may be checked by Crossref Similarity Check and other originality or duplicate checking software.

    Preprints

    Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

    Preprint posting on SSRN

    In support of Open Science, this journal offers its authors a free preprint posting service. Preprints provide early registration and dissemination of your research, which facilitates early citations and collaboration.

    During submission to Editorial Manager, you can choose to release your manuscript publicly as a preprint on the preprint server SSRN once it enters peer-review with the journal. Your choice will have no effect on the editorial process or outcome with the journal. Please note that the corresponding author is expected to seek approval from all co-authors before agreeing to release the manuscript publicly on SSRN.

    You will be notified via email when your preprint is posted online and a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is assigned. Your preprint will remain globally available free to read whether the journal accepts or rejects your manuscript.

    For more information about posting to SSRN, please consult the SSRN Terms of Use and FAQs.

    Use of inclusive language

    Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

    Changes to authorship

    Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
    Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

    Article transfer service

    This journal uses the Elsevier Article Transfer Service to find the best home for your manuscript. This means that if an editor feels your manuscript is more suitable for an alternative journal, you might be asked to consider transferring the manuscript to such a journal. The recommendation might be provided by a Journal Editor, a dedicated Scientific Managing Editor, a tool assisted recommendation, or a combination. If you agree, your manuscript will be transferred, though you will have the opportunity to make changes to the manuscript before the submission is complete. Please note that your manuscript will be independently reviewed by the new journal. More information.

    Copyright

    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

    For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

    Author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

    Elsevier supports responsible sharing

    Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

    Open access

    Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.

    You can find an example of a generic patient consent form here which you may use if you do not have one available from you own research/clinic.

    Submissions

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Full instructions for uploading data and files are given on the Editorial Manager:

    https://www.editorialmanager.com/jocn/default.aspx

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except as an abstract or part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration (in whole or in part) for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent from the Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, the copyright-holder.

    Suggesting reviewers

    Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential reviewers.

    You should not suggest reviewers who are colleagues, or who have co-authored or collaborated with you during the last three years. Editors do not invite reviewers who have potential competing interests with the authors. Further, in order to provide a broad and balanced assessment of the work, and ensure scientific rigor, please suggest diverse candidate reviewers who are located in different countries/regions from the author group. Also consider other diversity attributes e.g. gender, race and ethnicity, career stage, etc. Finally, you should not include existing members of the journal's editorial team, of whom the journal are already aware.

    Note: the editor decides whether or not to invite your suggested reviewers.





    Manuscripts should be submitted online through Editorial Manager. Full instructions for uploading data and files are given on the Editorial Manager: https://www.editorialmanager.com/jocn/default.aspx

    Once all files have been uploaded, the system converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance.

    Submission of an article implies that the work has not been published previously (except as an abstract or part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration (in whole or in part) for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent from the Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, the copyright-holder.

    Suggesting reviewers

    Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential reviewers. You should not suggest reviewers who are colleagues, or who have co-authored or collaborated with you during the last three years. Editors do not invite reviewers who have potential competing interests with the authors. Further, to provide a broad and balanced assessment of the work, and ensure scientific rigor, please suggest diverse candidate reviewers who are located in different countries/regions from the author group. Also consider other diversity attributes such as gender, race and ethnicity and career stage. Finally, you should not include existing members of the journal's editorial team, of whom the journal are already aware.

    Note: the editor decides whether or not to invite your suggested reviewers.






    Status of manuscripts

    The status of manuscripts can be reviewed in Editorial Manager (https://www.editorialmanager.com/jocn/default1.aspx). For other questions about the status of manuscripts under review, please visit our Support Center.

    Peer review

    This journal operates a single anonymized review process (authors are blinded to the identity of reviewers). All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups.

    Article transfer service

    This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.

    Communication about manuscript status

    All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail.


    Peer review

    This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.

    Use of wordprocessing software

    Allow at least a 2.5 cm margin all round. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. However, please save the file in the native format of the wordprocessor used and make sure that the different levels of headings can be distinguished easily.

    The electronic text should be prepared in a very similar way to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: https://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic illustrationshttps://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your wordprocessor.

    Article structure

    Papers should be set out as follows: title page, abstract and keywords, text, acknowledgements, references, tables, figures, captions to illustrations, video and supplementary data.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems and must be concise and informative. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. The title should not be divided into a title and a subtitle. The category of the article, such as a case report, can be included on a separate line.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author. The name of the department within an institution must also be included.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author. Please ensure that only one author has been nominated as the corresponding author. The role of corresponding author does not indicate seniority in any way. It is possible to indicate equal authorship by inclusion of a superscript number after the authors' names and a footnote.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address' ) may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
    Sources of support. Support in the form of grants and any financial or intellectual conflict of interest must be listed on the title page.

    Highlights

    Highlights are mandatory for this journal as they help increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.

    Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).

    Abstract and keywords

    An unstructured abstract is required for all submissions except Letters to the Editor. The unstructured abstract should consist of one paragraph only of not more than 200-250 words summarising the contents of the article and must not contain any subheadings or references. Please provide your unstructured abstract within your main manuscript doc file. Below the abstract, list from three to seven key-words that will assist in cross-indexing the article. Whenever possible, use terms from the MeSH list of Index Medicus. Keywords should be separated by semi-colons, e.g. capillary electrophoresis; liquid chromatography. Please provide your keywords within your main manuscript doc file.

    Text

    Papers should be submitted in English in journal style. Failure to do so may lead to significant delays in publication. Spelling may be British or American but must be consistent throughout the text of the article.

    Hyphenation, symbols and lists

    Please do not use the automatic hyphenation option. Only use hyphens when they are part of a word. Never use the letter 'I' for the number '1'. Never use the letter 'O' for the number '0'. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, and superscripts, as well as greek and specialised symbols, when necessary. Always insert a space between a number and a unit (e.g., 5 mm). Do not indent lists. However, if preparing a list within a list, use a tab and, not a space to indent the sublist. Bullets, numbers, alphabetical characters or dashes may be used but please use rationally and consistently.

    Graphical abstract

    Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.

    Abbreviations and units

    All abbreviations should be fully explained at their first occurrence in the text. Avoid numerous invented abbreviations. All measurements should be expressed in metric units, SI units being preferred except in the case of fluid pressures. For more detailed recommendations, authors may consult the Royal Society of Medicine publication: Units, Symbols and Abbreviations: A Guide for Biological and Medical Editors and Authors.

    Proprietary names, medication and equipment: Proprietary names and medication should start with initial capital letters. The name of the manufacturer should be included in parentheses after the first mention of the product, followed by the manufacturer's location (city, state and country).

    Formatting of funding sources

    List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

    Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

    It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

    If no funding has been provided for the research, it is recommended to include the following sentence:

    This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    Electronic artwork

    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    • Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork

    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

    In addition, some colors (e.g., yellow and green, and black and red) cannot be differentiated when converted to black and white. The Journal will not print black-and-white versions of color photographs in which information essential to the correct interpretation of that figure is no longer visible. Authors must submit figures both in black-and-white and in color that can be clearly understood in both versions.

    Figure captions

    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Figure captions for imaging studies must include details of the scan type (e.g., T1-weighted MRI) and the view (e.g., axial, coronal). Captions to histology sections must include stain type and magnification or a scale bar.

    Tables and equations

    Do not embed 'graphically designed' equations or tables, but prepare these using the wordprocessor's facility. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. Do not import the figures into the text file but, instead, indicate their approximate locations directly in the electronic text and on the manuscript. See also the section on Electronic artwork. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your wordprocessor.

    Do not submit tables as photographs.

    Care should be taken to ensure that all units are included.

    A short descriptive title should appear above each table and any footnotes, suitably identified, should appear below. Ensure that each table is cited in the text and number tables in the order in which they are cited. Place footnotes to the tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Do not use vertical rules. Ensure that the data presented in tables are not duplicated in the text.

    Reference links

    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, Crossref and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

    A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

    Data references

    This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

    Preprint references

    Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

    Reference management software

    Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.

    Reference formatting

    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

    Reference style

    Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
    List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
    Examples:
    Reference to a journal publication:
    [1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.Sc.2010.00372.
    Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
    [2] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00205
    Reference to a book:
    [3] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    [4] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
    Reference to a website:
    [5] Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK, http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003 [accessed 13 March 2003].
    Reference to a dataset:
    [dataset] [6] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
    Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also Samples of Formatted References).

    Journal abbreviations source

    Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

    Video

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    Supplementary material

    Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

    Research data

    This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

    Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

    Data linking

    If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

    There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

    For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

    In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

    Research Elements

    This journal enables you to publish research objects related to your original research – such as data, methods, protocols, software and hardware – as an additional paper in Research Elements.

    Research Elements is a suite of peer-reviewed, open access journals which make your research objects findable, accessible and reusable. Articles place research objects into context by providing detailed descriptions of objects and their application, and linking to the associated original research articles. Research Elements articles can be prepared by you, or by one of your collaborators.

    During submission, you will be alerted to the opportunity to prepare and submit a Research Elements article.

    More information can be found on the Research Elements page.

    Data statement

    To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.




    Proofs

    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.




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