Advertisement

Pre- and postoperative self-reported and objectively assessed neurocognitive functioning in lower grade glioma patients

Published:November 08, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2022.10.026

      Highlights

      • Little evidence of “objective” post-therapeutic impairment in validated testing.
      • Patients frequently complain on “subjective” memory dysfunction.
      • Patients report on “subjective” cognitive and emotional executive dysfunction.
      • No association of “subjective” or “objective” cognitive functioning to tumor volume.
      • Low to non-existent association between “subjective” and “objective” measures.

      Abstract

      Due to the tumor itself or its therapy glioma patients may complain on cognitive impairment, while validated neuropsychological testing (NPT) capturing specific neuropsychological domains does not indicate “objective” dysfunction. Little is known on the relevance of this disturbance for patients’ everyday life. We aimed to address whether glioma patients treated with state-of-the-art neurosurgical techniques complain on neuropsychological impairment and whether these subjective complaints are disclosed in formal NPT. We assessed both, “objective” and “subjective” neurocognitive functioning in 13 patients with newly diagnosed WHO grade 2 and 3 gliomas, operated between 06/2018 and 12/2020. All underwent both, preoperative and follow-up NPT as well as a semi-structured interview on subjective complaints and specific questionnaires (post-therapeutic) on attention, memory and executive functioning. On group level, no significant changes between preoperative and post-therapeutic NPT occurred. On the individual level, in 3/13 patients new post-therapeutic deficits in objective NPT were detected in specific domains (verbal memory, non-verbal memory, verbal fluency). By contrast, 8/13 patients reported on “subjective” memory impairments post-therapeutically. Furthermore, on specific questionnaires cognitive and emotional executive dysfunction and increased fatigue occurred in patients relative to normative data. Although the findings have to be replicated in larger populations, a discrepancy between “subjective” and “objective” measures was evident. While subjective neurocognitive impairment may simply not represent a true dysfunction, an alternative explanation might be that established standardized NPT is not suitable to detect subtle dysfunction in this population. “Subjective” and “objective” neurocognitive functioning might represent distinct constructs, which should complement each other in patient-centered Neuro-Oncology.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Clinical Neuroscience
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. Gesellschaft der epidemiologischen Krebsregister in Deutschland e.V. (GEKID) und des Zentrums für Krebsregisterdaten (ed.). Krebs in Deutschland für 2017/2018. Berlin: Robert Koch-Institut; 2021.

        • Jakola A.S.
        • Myrmel K.S.
        • Kloster R.
        • Torp S.H.
        • Lindal S.
        • Unsgård G.
        • et al.
        Comparison of a strategy favoring early surgical resection vs a strategy favoring watchful waiting in low-grade gliomas.
        JAMA. 2012; 308: 1881https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.12807
        • Smith J.S.
        • Chang E.F.
        • Lamborn K.R.
        • Chang S.M.
        • Prados M.D.
        • Cha S.
        • et al.
        Role of extent of resection in the long-term outcome of low-grade hemispheric gliomas.
        J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 1338-1345https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.13.9337
        • Sanai N.
        • Berger M.S.
        Surgical oncology for gliomas: The state of the art.
        Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2018; 15: 112-125https://doi.org/10.1038/nrclinonc.2017.171
        • Hervey-Jumper S.L.
        • Berger M.S.
        Maximizing safe resection of low- and high-grade glioma.
        J Neurooncol. 2016; 130: 269-282https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-016-2110-4
        • de Witt Hamer P.C.
        • Robles S.G.
        • Zwinderman A.H.
        • Duffau H.
        • Berger M.S.
        Impact of intraoperative stimulation brain mapping on glioma surgery outcome: A meta-analysis.
        J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30: 2559-2565https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2011.38.4818
        • Chang S.M.
        • Cahill D.P.
        • Aldape K.D.
        • Mehta M.P.
        Treatment of adult lower-grade glioma in the era of genomic medicine. American Society of Clinical Oncology educational book.
        American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting. 2016; : 35https://doi.org/10.1200/EDBK_158869
        • Buckner J.C.
        • Shaw E.G.
        • Pugh S.L.
        • Chakravarti A.
        • Gilbert M.R.
        • Barger G.R.
        • et al.
        Radiation plus procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine in low-grade glioma.
        N Engl J Med. 2016; 374: 1344-1355https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1500925
        • van den Bent M.J.
        • Brandes A.A.
        • Taphoorn M.J.B.
        • Kros J.M.
        • Kouwenhoven M.C.M.
        • Delattre J.-Y.
        • et al.
        Adjuvant Procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy in newly diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglioma: long-term follow-up of EORTC Brain Tumor Group Study 26951.
        J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31: 344-350https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2012.43.2229
        • Cairncross G.
        • Wang M.
        • Shaw E.
        • Jenkins R.
        • Brachman D.
        • Buckner J.
        • et al.
        Phase III trial of chemoradiotherapy for anaplastic oligodendroglioma: long-term results of RTOG 9402.
        J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31: 337-343https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2012.43.2674
        • van den Bent M.J.
        • Tesileanu C.M.S.
        • Wick W.
        • Sanson M.
        • Brandes A.A.
        • Clement P.M.
        • et al.
        Adjuvant and concurrent temozolomide for 1p/19q non-co-deleted anaplastic glioma (CATNON; EORTC study 26053–22054): Second interim analysis of a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study.
        Lancet Oncol. 2021; 22: 813-823https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00090-5
        • Molinaro A.M.
        • Taylor J.W.
        • Wiencke J.K.
        • Wrensch M.R.
        Genetic and molecular epidemiology of adult diffuse glioma.
        Nat Rev Neurol. 2019; 15: 405-417https://doi.org/10.1038/s41582-019-0220-2
        • Meyers C.A.
        • Rock E.P.
        • Fine H.A.
        Refining endpoints in brain tumor clinical trials.
        J Neurooncol. 2012; 108: 227-230https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-012-0813-8
        • Armstrong T.S.
        • Gilbert M.R.
        Patient reported endpoints for measuring clinical benefit in (high grade glioma) primary brain tumor patients.
        Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2014; 15: 519-528https://doi.org/10.1007/s11864-014-0302-8
        • Ownsworth T.
        • Hawkes A.L.
        • Chambers S.
        • Walker D.G.
        • Shum D.
        Applying a biopsychosocial perspective to investigate factors related to emotional adjustment and quality of life for individuals with brain tumour.
        Brain Impairment. 2010; 11: 270-280https://doi.org/10.1375/brim.11.3.270
        • Tucha O.
        • Smely C.
        • Preier M.
        • Lange K.W.
        Cognitive deficits before treatment among patients with brain tumors.
        Neurosurgery. 2000; 47: 324-334https://doi.org/10.1097/00006123-200008000-00011
        • Taphoorn M.J.B.
        • Klein M.
        Cognitive deficits in adult patients with brain tumours.
        Lancet Neurol. 2004; 3: 159-168https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(04)00680-5
        • Correa D.D.
        Neurocognitive function in brain tumors.
        Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2010; 10: 232-239https://doi.org/10.1007/s11910-010-0108-4
        • Zucchella C.
        • Bartolo M.
        • Di Lorenzo C.
        • Villani V.
        • Pace A.
        Cognitive impairment in primary brain tumors outpatients: A prospective cross-sectional survey.
        J Neurooncol. 2013; 112: 455-460https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-013-1076-8
        • Collins C.
        • Gehrke A.
        • Feuerstein M.
        Cognitive tasks challenging brain tumor survivors at work.
        J Occup Environ Med/Am Coll Occup Environ Med. 2013; 55https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e3182a64206
        • Meyers C.A.
        • Hess K.R.
        • Yung W.A.
        • Levin V.A.
        Cognitive function as a predictor of survival in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.
        J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 646https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2000.18.3.646
        • Noll K.R.
        • Weinberg J.S.
        • Ziu M.
        • Benveniste R.J.
        • Suki D.
        • Wefel J.S.
        Neurocognitive changes associated with surgical resection of left and right temporal lobe glioma.
        Neurosurgery. 2015; 77: 777-785https://doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0000000000000987
        • Satoer D.
        • Vork J.
        • Visch-Brink E.
        • Smits M.
        • Dirven C.
        • Vincent A.
        Cognitive functioning early after surgery of gliomas in eloquent areas.
        JNS. 2012; 117: 831-838https://doi.org/10.3171/2012.7.JNS12263
        • Wefel J.S.
        • Schagen S.B.
        Chemotherapy-related cognitive dysfunction.
        Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2012; 12: 267-275https://doi.org/10.1007/s11910-012-0264-9
        • Douw L.
        • Klein M.
        • Fagel S.S.
        • van den Heuvel J.
        • Taphoorn M.J.B.
        • Aaronson N.K.
        • et al.
        Cognitive and radiological effects of radiotherapy in patients with low-grade glioma: Long-term follow-up.
        Lancet Neurol. 2009; 8: 810-818https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(09)70204-2
        • Makale M.T.
        • McDonald C.R.
        • Hattangadi-Gluth J.A.
        • Kesari S.
        Mechanisms of radiotherapy-associated cognitive disability in patients with brain tumours.
        Nat Rev Neurol. 2017; 13: 52-64https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2016.185
        • Klein M.
        Neurocognitive functioning in adult WHO grade II gliomas: Impact of old and new treatment modalities.
        Neuro-Oncology. 2012; 14: iv17-iv24https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/nos161
        • Teixidor P.
        • Gatignol P.
        • Leroy M.
        • Masuet-Aumatell C.
        • Capelle L.
        • Duffau H.
        Assessment of verbal working memory before and after surgery for low-grade glioma.
        J Neurooncol. 2007; 81: 305-313https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-006-9233-y
        • Noll K.R.
        • Bradshaw M.E.
        • Parsons M.W.
        • Dawson E.L.
        • Rexer J.
        • Wefel J.S.
        Monitoring of neurocognitive function in the care of patients with brain tumors.
        Curr Treatm Opt Neurol. 2019; 21: 1426https://doi.org/10.1007/s11940-019-0573-2
        • Gehrke A.K.
        • Baisley M.C.
        • Sonck A.L.B.
        • Wronski S.L.
        • Feuerstein M.
        Neurocognitive deficits following primary brain tumor treatment: Systematic review of a decade of comparative studies.
        J Neurooncol. 2013; 115: 135-142https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-013-1215-2
        • Klein M.
        • Taphoorn M.J.B.
        • Heimans J.J.
        • van der Ploeg H.M.
        • Vandertop W.P.
        • Leenstra E.F.S.
        • et al.
        Neurobehavioral status and health-related quality of life in newly diagnosed high-grade glioma patients.
        J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 4037-4047
        • Gehring K.
        • Taphoorn M.J.B.
        • Sitskoorn M.M.
        • Aaronson N.K.
        Predictors of subjective versus objective cognitive functioning in patients with stable grades II and III glioma.
        Neuro-Oncol Pract. 2015; 2: 20-31https://doi.org/10.1093/nop/npu035
        • Klein M.
        • Heimans J.J.
        • Aaronson N.K.
        • van der Ploeg H.M.
        • Grit J.
        • Muller M.
        • et al.
        Effect of radiotherapy and other treatment-related factors on mid-term to long-term cognitive sequelae in low-grade gliomas: A comparative study.
        The Lancet. 2002; 360: 1361-1368https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11398-5
        • Pranckeviciene A.
        • Deltuva V.P.
        • Tamasauskas A.
        • Bunevicius A.
        Association between psychological distress, subjective cognitive complaints and objective neuropsychological functioning in brain tumor patients.
        Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2017; 163: 18-23https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2017.10.007
        • Cochereau J.
        • Herbet G.
        • Duffau H.
        Patients with incidental WHO grade II glioma frequently suffer from neuropsychological disturbances.
        Acta Neurochir. 2016; 158: 305-312https://doi.org/10.1007/s00701-015-2674-3
        • Nicol C.
        • Ownsworth T.
        • Cubis L.
        • Nguyen W.
        • Foote M.
        • Pinkham M.B.
        Subjective cognitive functioning and associations with psychological distress in adult brain tumour survivors.
        J Cancer Surviv. 2019; 13: 653-662https://doi.org/10.1007/s11764-019-00784-8
        • Caramanna I.
        • Bottomley A.
        • Drijver A.J.
        • Twisk J.
        • van den Bent M.
        • Idbaih A.
        • et al.
        Objective neurocognitive functioning and neurocognitive complaints in patients with high-grade glioma: Evidence of cognitive awareness from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer brain tumour clinical trials.
        Eur J Cancer. 2021; 144: 162-168https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.10.040
        • Barberis M.
        • Poisson I.
        • Facque V.
        • Letrange S.
        • Prevost-Tarabon C.
        • Houdart E.
        • et al.
        Group-level stability but individual variability of neurocognitive status after awake resections of right frontal IDH-mutated glioma.
        Sci Rep. 2022; 12: 1157https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-08702-2
        • Taphoorn M.J.
        • Heimans J.J.
        • Snoek F.J.
        • Lindeboom J.
        • Oosterink B.
        • Wolbers J.G.
        • et al.
        Assessment of quality of life in patients treated for low-grade glioma: A preliminary report.
        J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1992; 55: 372-376https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.55.5.372
        • Schei S.
        • Solheim O.
        • Salvesen Ø.
        • Hjermstad M.J.
        • Bouget D.
        • Sagberg L.M.
        Pretreatment patient-reported cognitive function in patients with diffuse glioma.
        Acta Neurochir. 2022; 164: 703-711https://doi.org/10.1007/s00701-022-05126-9
        • Mehnert A.
        • Scherwath A.
        • Schirmer L.
        • Schleimer B.
        • Petersen C.
        • Schulz-Kindermann F.
        • et al.
        The association between neuropsychological impairment, self-perceived cognitive deficits, fatigue and health related quality of life in breast cancer survivors following standard adjuvant versus high-dose chemotherapy.
        Patient Educ Couns. 2007; 66: 108-118https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2006.11.005
        • Cole A.M.
        • Scherwath A.
        • Ernst G.
        • Lanfermann H.
        • Bremer M.
        • Steinmann D.
        Self-reported cognitive outcomes in patients with brain metastases before and after radiation therapy.
        Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Physcs. 2013; 87: 705-712https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2013.07.037
        • Costa D.S.J.
        • Fardell J.E.
        Why are objective and perceived cognitive function weakly correlated in patients with cancer?.
        J Clin Oncol. 2019; 37: 1154-1158https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.02363
        • Ostrom Q.T.
        • Cioffi G.
        • Waite K.
        • Kruchko C.
        • Barnholtz-Sloan J.S.
        CBTRUS Statistical Report: primary brain and other central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2014–2018.
        Neuro-Oncology. 2021; 23: iii1-iii105https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noab200
        • Louis D.N.
        • Ohgaki H.
        • Wiestler O.D.
        • Cavenee W.K.
        WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system.
        International Agency for Research on Cancer, France2016
        • van den Bent M.J.
        • Baumert B.
        • Erridge S.C.
        • Vogelbaum M.A.
        • Nowak A.K.
        • Sanson M.
        • et al.
        Interim results from the CATNON trial (EORTC study 26053–22054) of treatment with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide for 1p/19q non-co-deleted anaplastic glioma: A phase 3, randomised, open-label intergroup study.
        The Lancet. 2017; 390: 1645-1653https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31442-3
        • Wefel J.S.
        • Cloughesy T.
        • Zazzali J.L.
        • Zheng M.
        • Prados M.
        • Wen P.Y.
        • et al.
        Neurocognitive function in patients with recurrent glioblastoma treated with bevacizumab.
        Neuro-Oncology. 2011; 13: 660-668https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/nor024
      2. Parsons MW, Dietrich J. Assessment and management of cognitive symptoms in patients with brain tumors. American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book 2021;13(41):e90-e99. https://doi.org/10.1200/EDBK_320813.

        • Zimmermann P.
        • Fimm B.
        A test battery for attentional performance.
        in: Leclercq M. Zimmermann P. Applied neuropsychology of attention: theory, diagnosis and rehabilitation. Psychology Press, 2002: 110-151
        • Aschenbrenner S.
        • Lange K.
        • Tucha W.O.
        RWT: Regensburger Wortflüssigkeits-Test.
        Hogrefe, Verl. für Psychologie, Göttingen2000
        • Reitan R.M.
        Trail making test.
        Reitan Neuropsychology Laboratory, Tucson1992
        • Wechsler D.
        Wechsler memory scale.
        American Psychological Association (APA), 1945
      3. Helmstaedter, C. Durwen, H. F. VLMT: Verbaler Lern- und Merkfähigkeitstest. Ein praktikables und differenziertes Instrumentarium zur Prüfung der verbalen Gedächtnisleistungen. Schweizer Archiv für Neurologie und Psychiatrie 1990;141:21–30.

        • Shin M.-S.
        • Park S.-Y.
        • Park S.-R.
        • Seol S.-H.
        • Kwon J.S.
        Clinical and empirical applications of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test.
        Nat Protoc. 2006; 1: 892-899https://doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2006.115
      4. Weidlich S, Derouiche A, Hartje W. Diagnosticum für Cerebralschädigung - II: Ein figuraler visueller Lern- und Gedächtnistest nach F. Hillers. München: Huber; 2011.

        • Beck A.T.
        • Steer R.A.
        • Brown G.K.
        Beck depression inventory.
        Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York1987
        • Hendriks E.J.
        • Habets E.J.J.
        • Taphoorn M.J.B.
        • Douw L.
        • Zwinderman A.H.
        • Vandertop W.P.
        • et al.
        Linking late cognitive outcome with glioma surgery location using resection cavity maps.
        Hum Brain Mapp. 2018; 39: 2064-2074https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.23986
        • Noll K.R.
        • Bradshaw M.E.
        • Weinberg J.S.
        • Wefel J.S.
        Relationships between neurocognitive functioning, mood, and quality of life in patients with temporal lobe glioma.
        Psycho-Oncology. 2017; 26: 617-624https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.4046
        • Miotto E.C.
        • Silva Junior A.
        • Silva C.C.
        • Cabrera H.N.
        • Machado M.A.R.
        • Benute G.R.G.
        • et al.
        Cognitive impairments in patients with low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas.
        Arq Neuro-Psiquiatr. 2011; 69: 596-601https://doi.org/10.1590/S0004-282X2011000500005
        • Ng J.C.H.
        • See A.A.Q.
        • Ang T.Y.
        • Tan L.Y.R.
        • Ang B.T.
        • King N.K.K.
        Effects of surgery on neurocognitive function in patients with glioma: A meta-analysis of immediate post-operative and long-term follow-up neurocognitive outcomes.
        J Neurooncol. 2019; 141: 167-182https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-018-03023-9
        • Boone M.
        • Roussel M.
        • Chauffert B.
        • Le Gars D.
        • Godefroy O.
        Prevalence and profile of cognitive impairment in adult glioma: A sensitivity analysis.
        J Neurooncol. 2016; 129: 123-130https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-016-2152-7
      5. Zimmermann P, Messner C, Poser U, Sedelmeier P. Ein Fragebogen erlebter Defizite der Aufmerksamkeit (FEDA). Universität Freiburg: Unveröffentlichtes Manuskript; 1991.

      6. Hupfeld J. Rezension: Fragebogen zur Erfassung alltäglicher Gedächtnisleistungen (FEAG). In: Schellig D, Drechsler R, Heinemann D, Sturm W, editors. Handbuch neuropsychologischer Testverfahren (Bd.1), Aufmerksamkeit, Gedächtnis, exekutive Funktionen; 2009, p. 677–683.

        • Kaschel R.
        Neuropsychologische Rehabilitation von Gedächtnisleistungen.
        Beltz Psychologie-Verl.-Union, Weinheim1994
      7. Wilson BA, Alderman N, Burgess PW, Emslie H, Evans JJ. Behavioral assessment of the dysexecutive syndrome. Bury St. Edmunds, England: Thames Valley Test Company; 1996.

        • Weis J.
        Cancer-related fatigue: Prevalence, assessment and treatment strategies.
        Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2014; 11: 441-446https://doi.org/10.1586/erp.11.44
        • Weis J.
        • Tomaszewski K.A.
        • Hammerlid E.
        • Ignacio Arraras J.
        • Conroy T.
        • Lanceley A.
        • et al.
        International psychometric validation of an EORTC Quality of Life Module Measuring Cancer Related Fatigue (EORTC QLQ-FA12).
        JNCI: J Nat Cancer Inst. 2017; 109: 791https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djw273
        • Wefel J.S.
        • Vardy J.
        • Ahles T.
        • Schagen S.B.
        International Cognition and Cancer Task Force recommendations to harmonise studies of cognitive function in patients with cancer.
        Lancet Oncol. 2011; 12: 703-708https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(10)70294-1
        • Sturm W.
        Aufmerksamkeitsstörungen.
        Hogrefe, Göttingen, Bern, Toronto, Seattle, Oxford, Prag2005
        • Chan R.C.K.
        Dysexecutive symptoms among a non-clinical sample: A study with the use of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire.
        Br J Psychol. 2001; 92: 551-565https://doi.org/10.1348/000712601162338
      8. Blesl C. Exekutive Funktionen und Alter Erfassung exekutiver Funktionen durch zwei neuropsychologische Tests. Examicus Verlag; 2016.

        • Hinz A.
        • Weis J.
        • Brähler E.
        • Mehnert A.
        Fatigue in the general population: German normative values of the EORTC QLQ-FA12.
        Qual Life Res. 2018; 27: 2681-2689https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-018-1918-0
        • Krishna S.
        • Kakaizada S.
        • Almeida N.
        • Brang D.
        • Hervey-Jumper S.
        Central nervous system plasticity influences language and cognitive recovery in adult glioma.
        Neurosurgery. 2021; 89: 539-548https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa456
        • Cull A.
        • Hay C.
        • Love S.B.
        • Mackie M.
        • Smets E.
        • Stewart M.
        What do cancer patients mean when they complain of concentration and memory problems?.
        Br J Cancer. 1996; 74: 1674-1679https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1996.608
        • Salander P.
        • Karlsson T.
        • Bergenheim T.
        • Henriksson R.
        Long-term memory deficits in patients with malignant gliomas.
        J Neurooncol. 1995; 25: 227-238https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01053156
        • Stulemeijer M.
        • Vos P.E.
        • Bleijenberg G.
        • van der Werf S.P.
        Cognitive complaints after mild traumatic brain injury: Things are not always what they seem.
        J Psychosom Res. 2007; 63: 637-645https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.06.023
        • Hall K.E.
        • Isaac C.L.
        • Harris P.
        Memory complaints in epilepsy: An accurate reflection of memory impairment or an indicator of poor adjustment? A Review of the literature.
        Clin Psychol Rev. 2009; 29: 354-367https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.03.001
        • Poppelreuter M.
        • Weis J.
        • Külz A.K.
        • Tucha O.
        • Lange K.W.
        • Bartsch H.H.
        Cognitive dysfunction and subjective complaints of cancer patients.
        Eur J Cancer. 2004; 40: 43-49https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2003.08.001
        • Spooner D.
        • Pachana N.
        Ecological validity in neuropsychological assessment: A case for greater consideration in research with neurologically intact populations.
        Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2006; 21: 327-337https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acn.2006.04.004
        • Pullens M.J.J.
        • de Vries J.
        • Roukema J.A.
        Subjective cognitive dysfunction in breast cancer patients: A systematic review.
        Psycho-Oncology. 2010; 19: 1127-1138https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.1673
        • Goebel S.
        • Kaup L.
        • Wiesner C.D.
        • Mehdorn H.M.
        Affective state and cognitive functioning in patients with intracranial tumors: Validity of the neuropsychological baseline assessment.
        Psycho-Oncology. 2013; 22: 1319-1327https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.3142
        • Pranckeviciene A.
        • Bunevicius A.
        • Deltuva V.P.
        • Tamasauskas A.
        Olfactory fossa meningioma presenting as depressive disorder: A case report.
        Cogn Behav Neurol. 2016; 29: 107-112https://doi.org/10.1097/WNN.0000000000000090
        • Comijs H.C.
        • Deeg D.J.H.
        • Dik M.G.
        • Twisk J.W.R.
        • Jonker C.
        Memory complaints; the association with psycho-affective and health problems and the role of personality characteristics.
        J Affect Disord. 2002; 72: 157-165https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327(01)00453-0
        • Mainio A.
        • Tuunanen S.
        • Hakko H.
        • Niemelä A.
        • Koivukangas J.
        • Räsänen P.
        Decreased quality of life and depression as predictors for shorter survival among patients with low-grade gliomas: A follow-up from 1990 to 2003.
        Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2006; 256: 516-521https://doi.org/10.1007/s00406-006-0674-2
        • Mauer M.
        • Stupp R.
        • Taphoorn M.J.B.
        • Coens C.
        • Osoba D.
        • Marosi C.
        • et al.
        The prognostic value of health-related quality-of-life data in predicting survival in glioblastoma cancer patients: Results from an international randomised phase III EORTC Brain Tumour and Radiation Oncology Groups, and NCIC Clinical Trials Group study.
        Br J Cancer. 2007; 97: 302https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6603876
        • Wefel J.S.
        • Noll K.R.
        • Rao G.
        • Cahill D.P.
        Neurocognitive function varies by IDH1 genetic mutation status in patients with malignant glioma prior to surgical resection.
        Neuro-Oncology. 2016; 18: 1656-1663https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/now165
        • Hadjiabadi D.H.
        • Pung L.
        • Zhang J.
        • Ward B.D.
        • Lim W.-T.
        • Kalavar M.
        • et al.
        Brain tumors disrupt the resting-state connectome.
        NeuroImage: Clin. 2018; 18: 279-289https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2018.01.026
        • Seeley W.W.
        • Menon V.
        • Schatzberg A.F.
        • Keller J.
        • Glover G.H.
        • Kenna H.
        • et al.
        Dissociable intrinsic connectivity networks for salience processing and executive control.
        J Neurosci. 2007; 27: 2349-2356https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5587-06.2007
        • Noll K.R.
        • Sullaway C.
        • Ziu M.
        • Weinberg J.S.
        • Wefel J.S.
        Relationships between tumor grade and neurocognitive functioning in patients with glioma of the left temporal lobe prior to surgical resection.
        Neuro-Oncology. 2015; 17: 580-587https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/nou233
        • Kayl A.E.
        • Meyers C.A.
        Does brain tumor histology influence cognitive function?.
        Neuro-Oncology. 2003; 5: 255-260https://doi.org/10.1215/S1152851703000012
        • Benedict R.H.B.
        • Munschauer F.
        • Linn R.
        • Miller C.
        • Murphy E.
        • Foley F.
        • et al.
        Screening for multiple sclerosis cognitive impairment using a self-administered 15-item questionnaire.
        Mult Scler. 2003; 9: 95-101https://doi.org/10.1191/1352458503ms861oa
        • Ediebah D.E.
        • Reijneveld J.C.
        • Taphoorn M.J.B.
        • Coens C.
        • Zikos E.
        • Aaronson N.K.
        • et al.
        Impact of neurocognitive deficits on patient–proxy agreement regarding health-related quality of life in low-grade glioma patients.
        Qual Life Res. 2017; 26: 869-880https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-016-1426-z
        • Oort Q.
        • Dirven L.
        • Sikkes S.A.M.
        • Aaronson N.
        • Boele F.
        • Brannan C.
        • et al.
        Do neurocognitive impairments explain the differences between brain tumor patients and their proxies when assessing the patient’s IADL?.
        Neuro-Oncol Pract. 2022; 47: 324-333https://doi.org/10.1093/nop/npac016