- •EOS patients with musculoskeletal conditions more likely to have renal anomalies.
- •Epilepsy and pulmonary failure were risks for patients with pulmonary disease.
- •Clustered neurologic and pulmonary anomalies increased mortality risk.
- •Clustered musculoskeletal and cardiovascular anomalies increased length of stay.
This study sought to assess comorbidity profiles unique to early-onset-scoliosis (EOS) patients by employing cluster analytics and to determine the influence of isolated comorbidity clusters on perioperative complications, morbidity and mortality using a high powered administrative database. The KID database was queried for ICD-9 codes pertaining to congenital and idiopathic scoliosis from 2003, 2006, 2009, 2012. Patients <10 y/o (EOS group) were included. Demographics, incidence and comorbidity profiles were assessed. Comorbidity profiles were stratified by body systems (neurological, musculoskeletal, pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal). K-means cluster and descriptive analyses elucidated incidence and comorbidity relationships between frequently co-occurring comorbidities. Binary logistic regression models determined predictors of perioperative complication development, mortality, and extended length-of-stay (≥75th percentile). 25,747 patients were included (Age: 4.34, Female: 52.1%, CCI: 0.64). Incidence was 8.9 per 100,000 annual discharges. 55.2% presented with pulmonary comorbidities, 48.7% musculoskeletal, 43.8% neurological, 18.6% cardiovascular, and 11.9% renal; 38% had concurrent neurological and pulmonary. Top inter-bodysystem clusters: Pulmonary disease (17.2%) with epilepsy (17.8%), pulmonary failure (12.2%), restrictive lung disease (10.5%), or microcephaly and quadriplegia (2.1%). Musculoskeletal comorbidities (48.7%) with renal and cardiovascular comorbidities (8.2%, OR: 7.9 [6.6–9.4], p < 0.001). Top intra-bodysystem clusters: Epilepsy (11.7%) with quadriplegia (25.8%) or microcephaly (20.5%). Regression analysis determined neurological and pulmonary clusters to have a higher odds of perioperative complication development (OR: 1.28 [1.19–1.37], p < 0.001) and mortality (OR: 2.05 [1.65–2.54], p < 0.001). Musculoskeletal with cardiovascular and renal anomalies had higher odds of mortality (OR: 1.72 [1.28–2.29], p < 0.001) and extLOS (OR: 2.83 [2.48–3.22], p < 0.001). EOS patients with musculoskeletal conditions were 7.9x more likely to have concurrent cardiovascular and renal anomalies. Clustered neurologic and pulmonary anomalies increased mortality risk by as much as 105%. These relationships may benefit pre-operative risk assessment for concurrent anomalies and adverse outcomes.
Level of Evidence: III – Retrospective Prognostic Study.
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Published online: January 09, 2019
Accepted: December 10, 2018
Received: August 5, 2018
© 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd.