Advertisement

Depression and cardiovascular disease in elderly: Current understanding

  • Yaxin Zhang
    Affiliations
    Department of Geriatrics, Xuan Wu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, China National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Beijing 100053, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Yujing Chen
    Affiliations
    Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xuan Wu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Lina Ma
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Geriatrics, Xuan Wu Hospital, Capital Medical University, China National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, #45 Changchun Street, Xicheng, Beijing 100053, China.
    Affiliations
    Department of Geriatrics, Xuan Wu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, China National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Beijing 100053, China
    Search for articles by this author
Published:October 21, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2017.09.022

      Highlights

      • Cardiovascular diseases are accompanied by a high incidence of depression.
      • Depression can affect prognosis of patients with cardiovascular diseases.
      • Efforts should be made to improve patients’ psychological function.

      Abstract

      Geriatric depression is a major public health problem and has an especially large effect on health when comorbid with a chronic medical condition. Hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes are accompanied by a high incidence of depression and can affect the treatment and prognosis. Depression is a highly prevalent risk factor for incident of and is associated with morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease. In addition to the proactive and effective control of primary diseases, efforts should also be made to improve patients’ psychological and social function. Current evidence on antidepressive therapy in patients with coronary diseases is limited. A better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning depression and cardiovascular disease as well as the complex biological crosstalk of cardiovascular disease complicated with depression is particularly important for future therapeutic strategies. The following review is on current understanding of geriatric depression and cardiovascular disease.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Clinical Neuroscience
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Carney R.M.
        • Freedland K.E.
        Depression and coronary heart disease.
        Nat Rev Cardiol. 2017; 14: 145-155
        • Ma L.
        • Li Y.
        The effect of depression on sleep quality and the circadian rhythm of ambulatory blood pressure in older patients with hypertension.
        J Clin Neurosci. 2017; 39: 49-52
        • McGregor R.A.
        • Cameron-Smith D.
        • Poppitt S.D.
        It is not just muscle mass: a review of muscle quality, composition and metabolism during ageing as determinants of muscle function and mobility in later life.
        Longev Healthspan. 2014; 3: 9
        • Ustun T.B.
        • Ayuso-Mateos J.L.
        • Chatterji S.
        • Mathers C.
        • Murray C.J.
        Global burden of depressive disorders in the year 2000.
        Br J Psychiatry. 2004; 184: 386-392
        • Moussavi S.
        • Chatterji S.
        • Verdes E.
        • Tandon A.
        • Patel V.
        • Ustun B.
        Depression, chronic diseases, and decrements in health: results from the World Health Surveys.
        Lancet. 2007; 370: 851-858
        • Guan S.
        • Fang X.
        • Hu X.
        Factors influencing the anxiety and depression of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.
        Int J Clin Exp Med. 2014; 7: 5691-5695
        • Patten S.B.
        Medical models and metaphors for depression.
        Epidemiol Psychiatry Sci. 2015; 24: 303-308
        • McElroy S.L.
        • Keck Jr., P.E.
        Metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorder: a review with a focus on bipolar depression.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2014; 75: 46-61
        • Post R.M.
        • Altshuler L.L.
        • Leverich G.S.
        • Nolen W.A.
        • Kupka R.
        • Grunze H.
        • et al.
        More medical comorbidities in patients with bipolar disorder from the United States than from the Netherlands and Germany.
        J Nerv Ment Dis. 2014; 202: 265-270
        • Sierra P.
        • Cámara R.
        • Tobella H.
        • Livianos L.
        What is the real significance and management of major thyroid disorders in bipolar patients?.
        Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment. 2014; 7: 88-95
        • Kozela M.
        • Bobak M.
        • Besala A.
        • Micek A.
        • Kubinova R.
        • Malyutina S.
        • et al.
        The association of depressive symptoms with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in Central and Eastern Europe: prospective results of the HAPIEE study.
        Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016; 23: 1839-1847
        • Catalina-Romero C.
        • Calvo-Bonacho E.
        Depression and cardiovascular disease: time for clinical trials.
        Atherosclerosis. 2017; 257: 250-252
        • Wada T.
        • Ishine M.
        • Sakagami T.
        • Okumiya K.
        • Fujisawa M.
        • Murakami S.
        • et al.
        Depression in Japanese community-dwelling elderly-prevalence and association with ADL and QOL.
        Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2004; 39: 15-23
        • Zivin K.
        • Llewellyn D.J.
        • Lang I.A.
        • Vijan S.
        • Kabeto M.U.
        • Miller E.M.
        • et al.
        Depression among older adults in the United States and England.
        Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010; 18: 1036-1044
        • Berntson J.
        • Patel J.S.
        • Stewart J.C.
        Number of recent stressful life events and incident cardiovascular disease: Moderation by lifetime depressive disorder.
        J Psychosom Res. 2017; 99: 149-154
        • Lichtman J.H.
        • Froelicher E.S.
        • Blumenthal J.A.
        • et al.
        Depression as a risk factor for poor prognosis among patients with acute coronary syndrome: systematic review and recommendations: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.
        Circulation. 2014; 129: 1350-1369
        • Peters A.
        • McEwen B.S.
        Stress habituation, body shape and cardiovascular mortality.
        Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015; 56: 139-150
        • Thombs B.D.
        • Bass E.B.
        • Ford D.E.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of depression in survivors of acute myocardial infarction.
        J Gen Int Med. 2006; 21: 30-38
        • Mahmood S.
        • Hassan S.Z.
        • Tabraze M.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and predictors of depression amongst hypertensive individuals in Karachi, Pakistan.
        Cureus. 2017; 9: e1397
        • Bensenor I.M.
        • Pereira A.C.
        • Tannuri A.C.
        • Valeri C.M.
        • Akashi D.
        • Fucciolo D.Q.
        • et al.
        Systemic arterial hypertension and psychiatric morbidity in the outpatient care setting of a tertiary hospital.
        Arq Neuro-psiquiatria. 1998; 56: 406-411
        • Jonas B.S.
        • Lando J.F.
        Negative affect as a prospective risk factor for hypertension.
        Psychosom Med. 2000; 62: 188-196
        • Ma L.
        • Tang Z.
        • Sun F.
        • Diao L.
        • Li Y.
        • Wang J.
        • et al.
        Risk factor for depression among elderly subjects with hypertension living at home in China.
        Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015; 8: 2923-2928
        • Meng C.
        • Tang Z.
        Analysis and comparison of depressive symptoms in elderly living in Beijing.
        Chin J Geront. 2000; 20: 196-199
        • Levenstein S.
        • Smith M.W.
        • Kaplan G.A.
        Psychosocial predictors of hypertension in men and women.
        Arch Int Med. 2001; 161: 1341-1346
        • Meng L.
        • Chen D.
        • Yang Y.
        • et al.
        Depression increases the risk of hypertension incidence: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
        J Hypertens. 2012; 30: 842-851
        • Abramson J.
        • Berger A.
        • Krumholz H.M.
        • Vaccarino V.
        Depression an risk of heart failure among older persons with isolated systolic hypertension.
        Arch Int Med. 2001; 161: 1725-1730
        • Penninx B.W.
        • Beekman A.T.
        • Honig A.
        • Deeg D.J.
        • Schoevers R.A.
        • van Eijk J.T.
        • et al.
        Depression and cardiac mortality: results from a community-based longitudinal study.
        Arch General Psychiatry. 2001; 58: 221-227
        • Adamis D.
        • Ball C.
        Physical morbidity in elderly psychiatric in patients: prevalence and possible relations between the major mental disorders and physical illness.
        Int J Geriat Psychiatry. 2000; 15: 248-253
        • Wiehe M.
        • Fuchs S.C.
        • Moreira L.B.
        • Moraes R.S.
        • Pereira G.M.
        • Gus M.
        • et al.
        Absence of association between depression and hypertension: results of a prospectively designed population-based study.
        J Hum Hypertens. 2006; 20: 434-439
        • Michal M.
        • Wiltink J.
        • Lackner K.
        • et al.
        Association of hypertension with depression in the community: results from the Gutenberg Health Study.
        J Hypertens. 2013; 31: 893-899
        • Lett H.S.
        • Blumenthal J.A.
        • Babyak M.A.
        • Sherwood A.
        • Strauman T.
        • Robins C.
        • et al.
        Depression as a risk factor for coronary artery disease: evidence, mechanisms, and treatment.
        Psychosom Med. 2004; 66: 305-315
        • Aromaa A.
        • Paitasalo R.
        • Reunanen A.
        • Impivaara O.
        • Heliovaara M.
        • Knekt P.
        • et al.
        Depression and cardiovascular disease.
        Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1994; 377: 77-82
        • Pratt L.A.
        • Ford D.E.
        • Crum R.M.
        • Armenian H.K.
        • Gallo J.J.
        • Eaton W.W.
        Depression, psychotropic medication, and risk of myocardial infarction. prospective data from the Baltimore ECA follow-up.
        Circulation. 1996; 94: 3123-3129
        • Nicholson A.
        • Kuper H.
        • Hemingway H.
        Depression as an aetiologic and prognostic factor in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of 6362 events among 146538 participants in 54 observational studies.
        Eur Heart J. 2006; 27: 2763-2774
        • Kim Y.
        • Soffler M.
        • Paradise S.
        • et al.
        Depression is associated with recurrent chest pain with or without coronary artery disease: a prospective cohort study in the emergency department.
        Am Heart J. 2017; 191: 47-54
        • Karina W.D.
        • Elizabeth M.
        • Willam W.
        Don’t worry, be happy: positive affect and reduced 10-year incident coronary heart disease: the Canadian Nova Scotia Health Survey.
        Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 1065-1070
        • Ostir G.V.
        • Berges I.M.
        • Markides K.S.
        • Ottenbacher K.J.
        Hypertension in older adults and the role of positive emotions.
        Psychosom Med. 2006; 68: 727-733
        • Anderson B.A.
        • Kenneth E.
        • Freedland P.H.
        The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: a meta-analysis.
        Diabetes Care. 2001; 24: 1069-1078
        • Yao J.
        • Wu W.
        • Li C.
        • Gu M.
        • Han Y.
        • Zhang X.
        • et al.
        A preliminary study of quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus coexisting major depression.
        Chin J Behav Med Sci. 2006; 15: 323-325
        • Patrick J.
        • Lustman R.E.
        Depression in diabetic patients. the relationship between mood and glycemic control.
        J Diabetes Complications. 2005; 19: 113-122
        • Jeong J.H.
        • Um Y.H.
        • Ko S.H.
        • Park J.H.
        • Park J.Y.
        • Han K.
        • et al.
        Depression and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 2003 to 2013: a nationwide population-based cohort study.
        Diabetes Metab J. 2017; 41: 296-302
        • Lobo-Escolar A.
        • Roy J.F.
        • Saz P.
        • De-la-Cámara C.
        • Marcos G.
        • Lobo A.
        Association of hypertension with depression in community-dwelling elderly persons: results from the ZARADEMP project.
        Psychother Psychosom. 2008; 77: 323-325
        • Moon J.R.
        • Huh J.
        • Song J.
        • Kang I.S.
        • Park S.W.
        • Chang S.A.
        • et al.
        The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale is an adequate screening instrument for depression and anxiety disorder in adults with congential heart disease.
        Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017; 15: 176
        • Tarolla E.
        • Biondi M.
        • Fabi E.
        • Gaviano I.
        • Gigantesco A.
        • Tarsitani L.
        • et al.
        Measuring depression with questions about well-being: a study on psychiatric outpatients.
        Riv Psichiatr. 2012; 47: 304-308
        • Garmine P.
        • Lanberto M.
        • Stefano M.
        • Grazia M.C.
        Analysis of potential predictors of depression among coronary heart disease risk factors including heart rate variability, markers of inflammation, and endothelial function.
        Eur Heart J. 2008; 29: 1110-1117
        • Guzzetti S.
        • Piccaluga E.
        • Casati R.
        • Cerutti S.
        • Lombardi F.
        • Pagani M.
        • et al.
        Sympathetic predominance an essential hypertension: a study employing spectral analysis of heart rate variability.
        J Hypertens. 1988; 6: 711-717
        • Krittayaphong R.
        • Cascio W.E.
        • Light K.C.
        • Sheffield D.
        • Golden R.N.
        • Finkel J.B.
        • et al.
        Heart rate variability in patients with coronary artery disease: differ- ences in patients with higher and lower depression scores.
        Psychosom Med. 1997; 59: 231-235
        • Carney R.M.
        • Freedland K.E.
        • Stein P.K.
        • Skala J.A.
        • Hoffman P.
        • Jaffe A.S.
        Change in heart rate and heart rate variability during treatment for depression in patients with coronary heart disease.
        Psychosom Med. 2000; 62: 639-647
        • Bigger J.T.
        • Fleiss J.L.
        • Steinman R.C.
        • Rolnitzky L.M.
        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Rottman J.N.
        Frequency domain measures of heart period variability and mortality aſter myocardial infarction.
        Circulation. 1992; 85: 164-171
        • La Rovere M.T.
        • Bigger J.T.
        • Marcus F.I.
        • Mortara A.
        • Schwartz P.J.
        • Investigators A.
        Baroreflex sensitivity and heart-rate variability in prediction of total cardiac mortality aſter myocardial infarction.
        Lancet. 1998; 351: 478-484
        • Sajadieh A.
        • Nielsen O.W.
        • Rasmussen V.
        • Hein H.O.
        • Abedini S.
        • Hansen J.F.
        Increased heart rate and reduced heart-rate variability are associated with subclinical inflammation in middle-aged and elderly subjects with no apparent heart disease.
        Eur Heart J. 2004; 25: 363-370
        • Franco F.G.M.
        • Laurinavicius A.G.
        • Lotufo P.A.
        • et al.
        Persistent depressive symptoms are independent predictors of low-grade inflammation onset among healthy individuals.
        Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017 Jun; 29https://doi.org/10.5935/abc.20170080
        • Albert M.A.
        • Glynn R.J.
        • Buring J.
        • Ridker P.M.
        Impact of traditional and novel risk factors on the relationship between socioeconomic status and incident cardiovascular events.
        Circulation. 2006; 114: 2619-2626
        • Nadrowski P.
        • Chudek J.
        • Skrzypek M.
        • Puzianowska-Kuznicka M.
        • Mossakowska, M.
        • Wiecek A.
        • et al.
        Associations between cardiovascular disease risk factors and IL-6 and hsCRP levels in the elderly.
        Exp Gerontol. 2016; 85: 112-117
        • Dowlati Y.
        • Herrmann N.
        • Swardfager W.
        • Liu H.
        • Sham L.
        • Reim E.K.
        • et al.
        A meta-analysis of cytokines in major depression.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2010; 67: 446-457
        • Veith R.C.
        • Lewis N.
        • Linares O.A.
        • Barnes R.F.
        • Raskind M.A.
        • Villacres E.C.
        • et al.
        Sympathetic nervous system activity in major depression: basal and desipramine-induced alterations in plasma norepinephrine kinetics.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994; 51: 411-422
        • Wong M.-L.
        • Kling M.A.
        • Munson P.J.
        • Listwak S.
        • Licinio J.
        • Prolo P.
        • et al.
        Pronounced and sustained central hypernoradrenergic function in major depression with melancholic features: relation to hypercortisolism and corticotropin-releasing hormone.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000; 97: 325-330
        • Gold P.
        • Chrousos G.
        Organization of the stress system and its dysregulation in melancholic and atypical depression: high vs. low CRH/NE states.
        Mol Psychiatry. 2002; 7: 254-275
        • Parker K.J.
        • Schatzberg A.F.
        • Lyons D.M.
        Neuroendocrine aspects of hyper- cortisolism in major depression.
        Horm Behav. 2003; 43: 60-66
        • Goldston K.
        • Baillie A.J.
        Depression and coronary heart disease: a review of the epidemiological evidence, explanatory mechanisms and management approaches.
        Clin Psychol Rev. 2008; 28: 288-306
        • Joynt K.E.
        • Whellan D.J.
        • O'Connor C.M.
        Depression and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms of interaction.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2003; 54: 248-261
        • Maric N.P.
        • Adzic M.
        Pharmacological modulation of HPA axis in depression - new avenues for potential therapeutic benefits.
        Psychiatr Danub. 2013; 25: 299-305
        • Palazidou E.
        The neurobiology of depression.
        Br Med Bull. 2012; 101: 127-145
        • Björntorp P.
        Neuroendocrine abnormalities in human obesity.
        Metabolism. 1995; 44: 38-41
        • Björntorp P.
        • Rosmond R.
        The metabolic syndrome – a neuroendocrine disorder?.
        Br J Nutr. 2000; 83: 49-57
        • Björntorp P.
        • Rosmond R.
        Neuroendocrine abnormalities in visceral obesity.
        Int. J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000; 24: 80-85
        • Shimokawa H.
        Primary endothelial dysfunction: atherosclerosis.
        J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1999; 31: 23-37
        • Park K.H.
        • Park W.J.
        Endothelial Dysfunction: Clinical Implications in Cardiovascular Disease and Therapeutic Approaches.
        J Korean Med Sci. 2015; 30: 1213-1225
        • Cooper D.C.
        • et al.
        Depressed mood and flow-mediated dilation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Psychosom Med. 2011; 73: 360-369
        • Rybakowski J.K.
        • Wykretowicz A.
        • Heymann-Szlachcinska A.
        • Wysocki H.
        Impairment of endothelial function in unipolar and bipolar depression.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2006; 60: 889-891
        • Sherwood A.
        • Hinderliter A.L.
        • Watkins L.L.
        • Waugh R.A.
        • Blumenthal J.A.
        Impaired endothelial function in coronary heart disease patients with depressive symptomatology.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005; 46: 656-659
        • van Sloten T.T.
        • Schram M.T.
        • Adriaanse M.C.
        • Dekker J.M.
        • Nijpels G.
        • Teerlink T.
        • et al.
        Endothelial dysfunction is associated with a greater depressive symptom score in a general elderly population: the Hoorn Study.
        Psychol Med. 2014; 44: 1403-1416
        • Ghiadoni L.
        • Donald A.E.
        • Cropley M.
        • Mullen M.J.
        • Oakley G.
        • Taylor M.
        • et al.
        Mental stress induces transient endothelial dysfunction in humans.
        Circulation. 2000; 102: 2473-2478
        • Spieker L.E.
        • Hürlimann D.
        • Ruschitzka F.
        • Corti R.
        • Enseleit F.
        • Shaw S.
        • et al.
        Mental stress induces prolonged endothelial dysfunction via endothelin-A receptors.
        Circulation. 2002; 105: 2817-2820
        • Brydon L.
        • Edwards S.
        • Jia H.
        • Mohamed-Ali V.
        • Zachary I.
        • Martin J.F.
        • et al.
        Psychological stress activates interleukin-1β gene expression in human mononuclear cells.
        Brain Behav Immun. 2005; 19: 540-546
        • von Känel R.
        • Kudielka B.M.
        • Preckel D.
        • Hanebuth D.
        • Fischer J.E.
        Delayed response and lack of habituation in plasma interleukin-6 to acute mental stress in men.
        Brain Behav Immun. 2006; 20: 40-48
        • Dinan T.G.
        Glucocorticoids and the genesis of depressive illness. A psychobi- ological model.
        Br J Psychiatry. 1994; 164: 365-371
        • Malpas S.C.
        Sympathetic nervous system overactivity and its role in the development of cardiovascular disease.
        Physiol Rev. 2010; 90: 513-557
        • van Dooren F.E.
        • Schram M.T.
        • Schalkwijk C.G.
        • Stehouwer C.D.
        • Henry R.M.
        • Dagnelie P.C.
        • et al.
        Associations of low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depression - The Maastricht Study.
        Brain Behav Immun. 2016; 56: 390-396
        • Adibfar A.
        • Saleem M.
        • Lanctot K.L.
        • Herrmann N.
        Potential Biomarkers for Depression Associated with Coronary Artery Disease: A Critical Review.
        Curr Mol Med. 2016; 16: 137-164
        • Sun W.J.
        • Xu L.
        • Chan W.M.
        • et al.
        Are depressive symptoms associated with cardiovascular mortality among older Chinese: a cohort study of 64,000 people in Hong Kong?.
        Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013; 21: 1107-1115
        • Vita J.A.
        • Keaney Jr, J.F.
        • Larson M.G.
        • Keyes M.G.
        • Massaro J.M.
        • Lipinska I.
        • et al.
        Brachial artery vasodilator function and systemic inflammation in the Framingham Offspring Study.
        Circulation. 2004; 110: 3604-3609
        • Whang W.
        • Kubzansky L.D.
        • Kawachi I.
        • Rexrode K.M.
        • Kroenke C.H.
        • Glynn R.J.
        • et al.
        Depression and risk of sudden cardiac death and coronary heart disease in women: Results From the Nurses' Health Study.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 53: 950-958
        • Zhou B.
        • Lu X.
        • Zhong X.
        • Deng Y.
        The adjunctive effect of the anti-anxiety-depression drugs on the treatment of essential hypertension in menopause women.
        Chin J Hypertens. 2007; 15: 53-56
        • Hansen R.A.
        • Khodneva Y.
        • Glasser S.P.
        • Qian J.
        • Redmond N.
        • et al.
        Antidepressant medication use and its association with cardiovascular disease and all- cause mortality in the reasons for geographic and racial differences in stroke (REGARDS) study.
        Ann. Pharmacother. 2016; 50: 253-261
        • Almeida O.P.
        • Alfonso H.
        • Flicker L.
        • Hankey G.J.
        • Norman P.E.
        Cardiovascular disease, depression and mortality: the Health In Men Study.
        Am J Geriatric Psychiatry. 2012; 20: 433-440
        • Licht C.M.
        • de Geus E.J.
        • Seldenrijk A.
        • van Hout H.P.
        • Zitman F.G.
        • van Dyck R.
        • et al.
        Depression is associated with decreased blood pressure, but antidepressant use increases the risk for hypertension.
        Hypertens. 2009; 53: 631-638
        • Licht C.M.
        • de Geus E.J.
        • van Dyck R.
        • Penninx B.W.
        The association between anxiety disorders and heart rate variability in the netherlands study of depression and anxiety: NESDA.
        Psychosom Med. 2009; 71: 508-518
        • Licht C.M.
        • de Geus E.J.
        • Zitman F.G.
        • Hoogendijk W.J.
        • van Dyck R.
        • Penninx B.W.
        Heart rate variability and major depressive disorder in the netherlands study on depression and anxiety: NESDA.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008; 65: 1358-1367
        • van Zyl L.T.
        • Hasegawa T.
        • Nagata K.
        Effects of antidepressant treatment on heart rate variability in major depression: a quantitative review.
        Biopsychosoc Med. 2008; 2: 1-10
        • Hamer M.
        • Batty G.D.
        • Seldenrijk A.
        • Kivimaki M.
        Antidepressant medication use and future risk of cardiovascular disease: the Scottish Health Survey.
        EHJ. 2011; 32: 437-442
        • Pizzi C.
        • et al.
        Meta-analysis of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in patients with depression and coronary heart disease.
        Am J Cardiol. 2011; 107: 972-979
        • Rafanelli C.
        • Sirri L.
        • Grandi S.
        • Fava G.A.
        Is depression the wrong treatment target for improving outcome in coronary artery disease?.
        Psychother Psychosom. 2013; 82: 285-291