Advertisement

Thin-film optical notch filter spectacle coatings for the treatment of migraine and photophobia

  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors have contributed equally to the manuscript.
    Ryan N. Hoggan
    Footnotes
    1 These authors have contributed equally to the manuscript.
    Affiliations
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors have contributed equally to the manuscript.
    Amith Subhash
    Footnotes
    1 These authors have contributed equally to the manuscript.
    Affiliations
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Steve Blair
    Affiliations
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Kathleen B. Digre
    Affiliations
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA

    Department of Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Susan K. Baggaley
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jamison Gordon
    Affiliations
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • K.C. Brennan
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Judith E.A. Warner
    Affiliations
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA

    Department of Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Alison V. Crum
    Affiliations
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Bradley J. Katz
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 801 585 6653; fax: +1 801 581 3357.
    Affiliations
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA

    Department of Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 These authors have contributed equally to the manuscript.
Published:February 27, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2015.09.024

      Highlights

      • Migraine is associated with photophobia, an abnormal intolerance to light.
      • Light stimulates intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (IPRGCs).
      • We designed an optical notch filter to reduce direct stimulation of IPRGCs.
      • Our objective was to determine if wearing the filter could reduce migraine impact.
      • Thin-film optical notch filters may be useful in treating chronic migraine.

      Abstract

      Previous evidence suggests optical treatments hold promise for treating migraine and photophobia. We designed an optical notch filter, centered at 480 nm to reduce direct stimulation of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. We used thin-film technology to integrate the filter into spectacle lenses. Our objective was to determine if an optical notch filter, designed to attenuate activity of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, could reduce headache impact in chronic migraine subjects. For this randomized, double-masked study, our primary endpoint was the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6; GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, Middlesex, UK). We developed two filters: the therapeutic filter blocked visible light at 480 nm; a 620 nm filter was designed as a sham. Participants were asked to wear lenses with one of the filters for 2 weeks; after 2 weeks when no lenses were worn, they wore lenses with the other filter for 2 weeks. Of 48 subjects, 37 completed the study. Wearing either the 480 or 620 nm lenses resulted in clinically and statistically significant HIT-6 reductions. However, there was no significant difference when comparing overall effect of the 480 and 620 nm lenses. Although the 620 nm filter was designed as a sham intervention, research published following the trial indicated that melanopsin, the photopigment in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, is bi-stable. This molecular property may explain the unexpected efficacy of the 620 nm filter. These preliminary findings indicate that lenses outfitted with a thin-film optical notch filter may be useful in treating chronic migraine.

      Graphical abstract

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Clinical Neuroscience
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Evans R.W.
        • Seifert T.
        • Kailasam J.
        • et al.
        The use of questions to determine the presence of photophobia and phonophobia during migraine.
        Headache. 2008; 48: 395-397https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4610.2007.00920.x
        • Main A.
        • Dowson A.
        • Gross M.
        Photophobia and phonophobia in migraineurs between attacks.
        Headache. 1997; 37: 492-495
        • Vincent A.J.
        • Spierings E.L.
        • Messinger H.B.
        A controlled study of visual symptoms and eye strain factors in chronic headache.
        Headache. 1989; 29: 523-527
        • Wilkins A.J.
        • Nimmo-Smith I.
        • Slater A.I.
        • et al.
        Fluorescent lighting, headaches and eyestrain.
        Light Res Technol. 1989; 21: 11-18
        • Good P.A.
        • Taylor R.H.
        • Mortimer M.J.
        The use of tinted glasses in childhood migraine.
        Headache. 1991; 31: 533-536
        • Blackburn M.K.
        • Lamb R.D.
        • Digre K.B.
        • et al.
        FL-41 tint improves blink frequency, light sensitivity, and functional limitations in patients with benign essential blepharospasm.
        Ophthalmology. 2009; 116: 997-1001https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.12.031
        • Huang J.
        • Zong X.
        • Wilkins A.
        • et al.
        FMRI evidence that precision ophthalmic tints reduce cortical hyperactivation in migraine.
        Cephalalgia. 2011; 31: 925-936https://doi.org/10.1177/0333102411409076
        • Digre K.B.
        • Brennan K.C.
        Shedding light on photophobia.
        J Neuroophthalmol. 2012; 32: 68-81https://doi.org/10.1097/WNO.0b013e3182474548
        • Noseda R.
        • Kainz V.
        • Jakubowski M.
        • et al.
        A neural mechanism for exacerbation of headache by light.
        Nat Neurosci. 2010; 13: 239-245https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.2475
        • Gooley J.J.
        • Lu J.
        • Fischer D.
        • et al.
        A broad role for melanopsin in nonvisual photoreception.
        J Neurosci. 2003; 23: 7093-7106
        • Hattar S.
        • Lucas R.J.
        • Mrosovsky N.
        • et al.
        Melanopsin and rod-cone photoreceptive systems account for all major accessory visual functions in mice.
        Nature. 2003; 424: 76-81https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01761
        • Brown T.M.
        • Allen A.E.
        • al-Enezi J.
        • et al.
        The melanopic sensitivity function accounts for melanopsin-driven responses in mice under diverse lighting conditions.
        PLoS One. 2013; 8: e53583https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053583
        • Dowson A.J.
        Assessing the impact of migraine.
        Curr Med Res Opin. 2001; 17: 298-309
        • Smelt A.F.
        • Assendelft W.J.
        • Terwee C.B.
        • et al.
        What is a clinically relevant change on the HIT-6 questionnaire? An estimation in a primary-care population of migraine patients.
        Cephalalgia. 2014; 34: 29-36https://doi.org/10.1177/0333102413497599
        • Goadsby P.J.
        • Lipton R.B.
        • Ferrari M.D.
        Migraine–current understanding and treatment.
        N Engl J Med. 2002; 346: 257-270
        • Chellappa S.L.
        • Ly J.Q.
        • Meyer C.
        • et al.
        Photic memory for executive brain responses.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111: 6087-6091https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1320005111
        • Mure L.S.
        • Cornut P.L.
        • Rieux C.
        • et al.
        Melanopsin bistability: a fly’s eye technology in the human retina.
        PLoS One. 2009; 4: e5991https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005991
        • Wilkins A.J.
        • Patel R.
        • Adjamian P.
        • et al.
        Tinted spectacles and visually sensitive migraine.
        Cephalalgia. 2002; 22: 711-719