Neuroradiology Report| Volume 20, ISSUE 11, P1582-1587, November 2013

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Analysis of restenosis after carotid artery stenting: Preliminary results using computational fluid dynamics based on three-dimensional angiography


      Currently carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a widely used technique for the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. However, some patients with restenosis following CAS have been reported, resulting in potential clinical problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic changes before and after CAS to find the factors that may influence restenosis. Five patients (two with restenosis, three without restenosis) were included in this study. The geometry and rheological conditions of the carotid arteries were obtained from three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography and ultrasound measurements. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling was performed to calculate wall shear stress (WSS), wall shear stress gradient (WSSG) and internal carotid artery (ICA) flow ratio. In addition, morphologic analysis was carried out. CFD results indicated that the WSSG of the restenosis group was significantly larger than that of the no-restenosis group. In the restenosis group, the WSS distribution after CAS showed a significant variation at the ICA. The average ICA flow ratio of the restenosis group was 43.5%, while in the no-restenosis group it was 68.6%. Furthermore, there were similar significant differences between the two groups during morphology analysis. CFD technology is useful for physicians in estimating haemodynamic changes during ICA stenosis treatment. These parameters, including ICA flow ratio and WSS distribution, may help to predict carotid restenosis. In future, CFD combined with other medical techniques such as digital subtraction angiography, MRI and pathology technologies will be available for the clinical estimation of ICA restenosis.


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